Yulinda Yulinda
Ida Widiawati


The balance of the vaginal microbiota has an important function in women's reproductive health, the balance can be disturbed by physiological and non-physiological changes mediated by hormonal status, sexual behavior, contraceptive use, vaginal bleeding, vaginal irrigation or use of foreign objects or drugs. With the use of contraceptive methods by women, it becomes important to observe various changes or vaginal dysfunction syndromes due to the periodic use of contraceptives, Intra Uterine Devices and condoms. This study aims to determine how the condition of the vaginal microbiota in women of childbearing age who use various contraceptive methods. Preparation before taking the test: the client empties the bladder before carrying out the test for comfort, the examiner confirms whether or not she is pregnant or may be pregnant, detects infections of reproductive or urinary tract problems with symptoms such as itching, sores, swelling, unusual odor, excessive vaginal discharge, confirms the device contraceptive use, history of surgery or other procedures related to the vagina, cervix, uterus, or vulva. The basic criteria for diagnosis use Numerical Values ​​according to Nugent criteria

In this study, there were 34 samples of vaginal smear preparations, 9 samples were excluded. Consists of 23 contraceptive users: pills, injections, implants, IUDs. All women showed no symptoms or signs of vaginal dysfunction. Average sexual intercourse 2-3./week. Examination using gram stain. The cervical secretory mucosa protects the vaginal and cervical epithelium by forming physical and biochemical barriers or barriers. The use of oral contraceptives has an effect on bacterial vaginosis and the endocrine environment. This effect may have an effect on increasing glycogen from epithelial cells as a result of estrogens, favorable lactic acid production and lowering of vaginal pH very well for lactobacilli.


1. Moncla, B. J. Chappell, C. A., Debo, B. M., Meyn, L. A., 2016. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh,. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158687 July 20, 2016.

2. Fosch, S. E., Yones, C., Trossero, M., Grosso, O., The influence of different contraceptive methods on vaginal microbiota: Clinical study Vol.5, No.7A4, 19-24 (2013) Health

3. Calla, N.E.Q., Miguel, R.D.V., Boyaka, P.N., Hall-Stoodley,L Balveen Kaur, Wayne Trout, Stephen D Pavelko, and Thomas L Cherpes, 2016. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 November;9(6): 1571–1583. doi:10.1038/mi.2016.22.

4. Borgdorff, H, van der Veer,C, Houdt, R., Catharina J. Alberts, Henry J. de Vries, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Marieke B. Snijder, Maria Prins, Suzanne E. Geerlings, Maarten F. Schim van der Loef, Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert, 2017, The association between ethnicity and vaginal microbiota composition in Amsterdam, the Netherlands PLOS ONE July 11, 2017

5. Moncla1, B.J, Chappell, C.A. Brian M. Debo, Leslie A. Meyn. 2006. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female
Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158687 July 20, 2016

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>