Feryanda Utami
Vasuki Rajaguru
Jieun Jang
Jaeyong Shin


Introduction: Indonesia, a country with approximately 30.38 million people facing disabilities, encounters challenges in meeting the diverse needs of this significant demographic. The 2010 Population Census reported a 4.74% increase in disability prevalence over the past decade. The initiation of the National Health Insurance (JKN) in 2014 aimed not only to alleviate financial burdens but also to enhance the overall health and well-being of individuals with disabilities.

Objective: This study delves into the impact of JKN on the physical capabilities of individuals with disabilities, specifically concentrating on Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL).

Methods: Using IFLS data, this research centers on 2,296 disabled individuals from IFLS4 (2008) and 3,463 from IFLS5 (2015). Logistic regression models examine the effect of JKN implementation on physical capabilities, accounting for potential confounding variables. The investigation explores the associations between sociodemographic factors and physical abilities both before and after the policy change.

Results and Discussion: The results demonstrate significant enhancements in physical abilities following the implementation of JKN, especially among younger age groups, individuals with non-traditional marital statuses, females, and those covered by health insurance. Surprisingly, a reversal in the correlation between education levels and physical abilities is observed. The study underscores the pivotal role of insurance coverage in facilitating improved physical abilities among individuals with disabilities.

Conclusion: The implementation of JKN has substantially improved the well-being and physical capabilities of individuals with disabilities in Indonesia. The study underscores the significance of evidence-based policies, accessible healthcare, and equitable health insurance coverage to promote inclusivity and address the diverse needs of this population. Policymakers are urged to prioritize initiatives that enhance the quality of life for Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia and beyond.


P2PTM Kemenkes RI. Kebutuhan Tidur sesuai Usia [Internet]. P2Ptm.Kemkes.Go.Id. 2018. Available from:

Disability in Indonesia: What can we learn from the data? Australia Indonesia Partnership for Economic Governance MONASH BUSINESS SCHOOL. 2017;

Moertiningsih Adioetomo S, Mont D. PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN INDONESIA Empirical Facts and Implications for Social Protection Policies. 2014 [cited 2024 Jan 25]; Available from:

Murthy Gudlavalleti VS. Challenges in Accessing Health Care for People with Disability in the South Asian Context: A Review. [cited 2024 Jan 25]; Available from:

Century I of M (US) C on A the H of the P in the 21st. Understanding Population Health and Its Determinants. 2002 [cited 2024 Jan 26]; Available from:

Raghupathi V, Raghupathi W. The influence of education on health: An empirical assessment of OECD countries for the period 1995-2015. Arch Public Heal [Internet]. 2020 Apr 6 [cited 2024 Jan 26];78(1):1–18. Available from:

Wade DT. What is rehabilitation? An empirical investigation leading to an evidence-based description. Clin Rehabil [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2024 Jan 26];34(5):571–83. Available from:

Babik I, Gardner ES. Factors Affecting the Perception of Disability: A Developmental Perspective. Front Psychol [Internet]. 2021 Jun 21 [cited 2024 Jan 26];12. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC8255380/

Dassah E, Aldersey HM, McColl MA, Davison C. Health care providers’ and persons with disabilities’ recommendations for improving access to primary health care services in rural northern Ghana: A qualitative study. PLoS One [Internet]. 2022 Sep 1 [cited 2024 Jan 26];17(9). Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC9481012/

Uninsurance I of M (US) C on the C of. Effects of Health Insurance on Health. 2002 [cited 2024 Jan 26]; Available from:

CMS. Modernizing Health Care to Improve Physical Accessibility: A Primer for Providers.

Persson H, Åhman H, Yngling AA, Gulliksen J. Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: different concepts—one goal? On the concept of accessibility—historical, methodological and philosophical aspects. Univers Access Inf Soc. 2015 Nov 13;14(4):505–26.

Bulat J, Hayes A, Macon W, Ticha R, Abery B. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 2017 Jan 16 [cited 2024 Jan 26]; Available from:

Hayes AM, Bulat J. Disabilities Inclusive Education Systems and Policies Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 2017 Jul 28 [cited 2024 Jan 26]; Available from:

Lauchlan F, Boyle C. Is the use of labels in special education helpful? Support Learn. 2007;22(1):36–42.

Thomas PA, Liu H, Umberson D. Family Relationships and Well-Being. Innov Aging [Internet]. 2017 Nov 1 [cited 2024 Jan 26];1(3). Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5954612/

Padavic I, Ely RJ, Reid EM. Explaining the Persistence of Gender Inequality: The Work–family Narrative as a Social Defense against the 24/7 Work Culture*. Adm Sci Q. 2020 Mar 1;65(1):61–111.

Shang B. Tackling Gender Inequality: Definitions, Trends, and Policy Designs. IMF Work Pap [Internet]. 2022 Dec 2 [cited 2024 Jan 26];2022(232). Available from:

Von Reichert C, Berry EH. Rural-urban patterns of disability: The role of migration.